Garudadhvani!

Garudadhvani - Page 1

The first page of my article as it appeared in Shanmukha

Garudadhvani

Note 1:  I am happy to reproduce this article in my blog that appeared in the current issue of Shanmukha – a quarterly journal dedicated to the Arts brought out by Bombay’s Shanmukhananda Sabha.

Note 2: I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to Shanmukha’s editor Smt. Radha Namboodiri for her continued encouragement, insightful feedback and valuable suggestions.

Note 3: In this blog post, I have also added two tracks on Garudadhvani.  One is an absolutely sparkling rendition of Tattvameruga Tarama (Tyagaraja, Rupaka Tala) by my revered Guruji Late Shri T.R.Subramanyam (TRS).  There can be no way to express the way TRS has sung this, with the stellar team of V.V.Subramanian and Guru Karaaikkudi Mani.

Note 4: At the risk of some self-promotion (!), I have also added one of my tracks where I have sung an alapana of Garudadhvani, followed by Tyagaraja’s Anandasaagara (adi tala) with swaras and a corappu.  I have an excellent team of S.Varadarajan on the violin and Shertalai R. Ananthakrishnan on the mridangam.

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Introduction

Everyone knows Mohanam!  This classical pentatonic raga has eternal appeal over the connoisseur and the layman alike, and is a raga which almost anyone with even minimum exposure is likely to identify without any difficulty.  Mohanam is thus a universal raga as the scale is quite prevalent in other forms of music especially in Chinese and other East Asian varieties.

Currently Mohanam is regarded as a janya of the 28th melakarta raga Harikambhoji.  Since the madhyamam and the nishaadham are absent in Mohanam, it can be theoretically regarded also as a janya of Shankarabharanam, Vachaspati and Kalyani.  In fact, Subbarama Dikshitar, in his magnum opus Sangita Sampradaya Pradarshini, has classified Mohanam as a janya of Kalyani (Santhakalyani).

Supposing we extend Mohanam by retaining its ArOhaNam, and substitute, instead of the usual avarOhaNam of S D P G R S, the avarOhaNam of Kalyani.  The resulting raga is, not surprisingly, Mohanakalyani!  And Mohanakalyani is one of the ragas whose name has been easily coined as the conjunct of Mohanam and Kalyani – Mohanam is the ArOhaNam and Kalyani is the avarOhaNam.  This is different from ragas that appear to be a conjoint of two raga names – for instance, Saraswatimanohari is NOT a conjoined result of the ragas Saraswati and Manohari.  Nor is Kedaragaula a conjoined result of Kedaram and Gaula.

Coming back to Mohanakalyani, being a derivative of the melakarta raga Kalyani, this is of course a prati-madhyama raga.  If we consider Mohanakalyani’s suddha madhyama counterpart, this raga would have Mohanam as its ArOhaNam and Shankarabharanam as its avarOhaNam.  Hence by the previous logic, we theoretically get the raga Mohana-Shankarabharanam.  Clearly, a bit of a mouthful to pronounce, this ‘’theoretically coined’’ Mohana-Shankarabharanam happens to be a very popular raga that is better known as Bilahari!

So from Mohanam, we have traversed to Mohanakalyani and then to Mohana-Shankarabharanam, which is Bilahari.  What about the ‘’reverse’’ of Bilahari – i.e. the reverse of Mohana-Shankarabharanam?   Exercising the same logic we get, by this process of reversal, the raga Shankarabharana-mohanam.

As the name suggests, Shankarabharana-mohanam has for its ArOhaNam, Shankarabharanam, and Mohanam for the avarOhanam.  Hence the structure is

S R G M P D N S’

S’ D P G R S

This is the raga Garudadhvani.

This can be viewed as:

Mohanam -> Mohanakalyani  -> Mohana-shankarabharanam -> Shankarabharana-mohanam -> which is –  voilà! => Garudadhvani!

 

Garudadhvani – A mirror image of Bilahari, but only theoretically!

Hence, Garudadhvani can be referred to as the mirror-image of Bilahari.  In practical application however, Garudadhvani has nothing to do with Bilahari whatsoever and they do not even sound remotely similar.  The arrangement of the notes and the intonation of the swaras of Garudadhvani are completely different as we shall see.

Garudadhvani is an example of a sampoorna-oudava raga.  This raga has all the seven notes in order in the ArOhaNa (S R G M P D N) and five notes in the avarOhaNa (S’ D P G R).  Examples of similar sampoorna-oudava ragas are Kiranavali (a janya of the 21st melakarta raga Keeravani) and Saramati (a janya of the 20th melakarta raga Natabhairavi).

Garudadhvani is a raga that acquires extra sheen when it takes more of plain notes and relatively less of gamakas.  This is not to say that gamakas are totally done away with – it’s just that the raga sounds better and less like its parent Shankarabharanam when it is sung with more of plain notes, especially the rishabham, dhaivatam and the nishaadam.

Tyagaraja!

As always, it is Tyagaraja who has given life to this raga in the form of two very beautiful compositions.  The first kriti is the very popular Tattvameruga tarama set to Rupaka tala.  This kriti has been extensively sung many musicians, notably by K.V.Narayanaswamy, T.K.Rangachari and my guru T.R.Subramanyam (TRS).  TRS in his heydays would sing this kriti at a relatively faster pace and sing many rounds of mind-boggling kalpana swaras that would span all the three octaves, even touching the taara sthaayi dhaivatam in the process.  With his clear and ringing voice superbly complemented by easy and facile brigas, TRS’ rendition of Tattvameruga Tarama would be sheer delight to listen to and experience.

Listen to TRS here!

Tyagaraja’s other composition is Anandasaagaramu eedani set to adi tala.  While not as popular as the rupaka tala kriti Tatvameruga tarama, Anandasaagaramu has nevertheless appeared in concerts every now and then.  The meaning of this song is especially interesting for Tyagaraja makes a very emphatic statement.  He avers that a human body, which does not swim the ocean of Supreme Bliss, called the knowledge of music, on which all vEdas are dependent, is nothing but a burden to the earth (dEhamu bhU bhAramu).

We can interpret this in the modern context by saying that people who do not enjoy music, particularly classical music are verily a burden to society!

Tyagaraja’s Raga Selection for Kritis on Music

It’s interesting to note Tyagaraja’s selection of ragas when it comes to making statements about music and musical knowledge.  We have the kriti Ragasudharasa where he exhorts the mind to exult by drinking the nectar of music which bestows all the benefits that accrue through vEdic sacrifices, through practice of yOga, through renunciation and through worldly enjoyments.  We have this song set rather unusually in the raga Andolika.

Another very well-known kriti is Mokshamugalada.  Tyagaraja rhetorically asks by addressing the Omniscient, omnipotent and the omnipresent (Saakshaatkaara) if in this world, whether emancipation is attainable for those who are bereft of the knowledge of music combined with true devotion.  This kriti as everyone knows is set to Saramati – again a raga that was popularized first by Tyagaraja alone.  Only subsequently have composers created compositions in Saramati but clearly heavy-weight Mokshamugalada’s emotive appeal, its sheer melodic charm and the unmistakable import of the lyrics remains unequalled and towers way above other creations.

In the same mode, Tyagaraja appears to have chosen the relatively rare raga Garudadhvani to make this statement of a human being without the ability to swim in the musical ocean of bliss is just a burden to Mother Earth!

As a professional performing musician, I have often wondered just why Tyagaraja chose to set this composition in the raga Garudadhvani.  The only conclusion that I can logically draw is that Tyagaraja himself must have been inspired by the potential of Garudadhvani despite is apparent awkwardness of having the Shankarabharanam-Mohanam structure instead of the ‘’easier’’ and ostensibly more navigable Mohana-Shankarabharanam (i.e. Bilahari).  Though this may sound like a truism, but really the Carnatic music world will be eternally indebted to Tyagaraja for bequeathing to us these wonderful compositions in such offbeat and charming ragas.

My rendition of Anandasagara…

Garudadhvani seems to have been used by composers very sparingly immediately after Tyagaraja’s time.  There is Emineramu of Garbhapuri Vasar in adi tala that Lalgudi Jayaraman used to play.

Muthiah Bhagavathar & Mysore Vasudevacharya!!!

It was left to the two most sparkling composers of the 20th century to input their creations – Harikesanallur Muthiah Bhagavathar and Mysore Vasudevacharya.  The latter has bequeathed to us Devi Kamalalaye – a beautiful kriti on Goddess Lakshmi.  This adi tala kriti in Sanskrit has a charming chittaswara-sahitya passage as well, in true Vasudevacharya style.

Muthiah Bhagavathar has created two compositions in this raga.  One is chanda munda shiras chhetri in rupaka tala.  This kriti is part of the Chamundamba Ashtothra krithis.  The ShrI chAmuNDeshvarI aShTottarashatanAmAvaliH are a set of 108 names on Goddess Chamundi and Muthiah Bhagavathar has composed a kriti on each of these 108 names and these make up the set comprising the Chamundamba Ashtothra krithis.  This kriti on Garudadhvani focuses on Chamundamba as the destroyer of the asuras Chanda and munda, one who is formidable, one who shines like a crore of suns, one who is attainable through the navaakshara mantram, one who delights in the Navaratri utsavam, and one who is the wife of Siva and is prayed to by Indra.

The second kriti that Muthiah Bhagavatar composed is Raja Rajeswari Raaja Parameswari set to adi tala.  When I saw the notation of this kriti for the first time I was totally captivated.  This kriti has a swinging gait to it almost akin to a mild gallop.  Rendered with appropriate plain notes with a mixture of minimum gamakas, thus giving a ‘’western music feel’’, this kriti has the potential to attract any listener – both the laity and the connoisseur alike.

And…Lalgudi Jayaraman (naturally)!

Considering Garudadhvani, one *has* to mention maestro Lalgudi Jayaraman’s tana varnam in adi tala.  I am taken back in time to February 1990 when my guru T.R.Subramanyam (TRS) organized a workshop of the violin virtuoso in New Delhi where we were fortunate enough to learn five varnams and five thillanas – all composed by Lalgudi, directly from him.  The Garudadhvani varnam was the first composition that he taught us and even the way he sang the swaras of the first line of the varnam is indelibly etched in memory.

‘’P, G, M, PDP, GRG,,,’’

The PGMP phrase is very characteristic of Garudadhvani and establishes the raga beyond doubt.

Lalgudi’s varnam on Lord Subramanya contains some beautiful passages.  Especially the third ettugada swaram in the charanam is worth mentioning.  This swara passage is made up of combinations of very short ascents and descents throughout, resulting a beautifully happy and swaying effect.

Garudadhvani is a raga that lends itself to swarakalpana with alacrity.  What about raga alapanas?

Ostensibly, raga alapanas would appear to be cumbersome give the distribution of swaras.   However on deep thought and reflection, it can be concluded that raga alapanas *can* be made possible without repetition, keeping the aesthetic appeal of the raga intact.

Hence Garudadhvani is not merely a raga that should be regarded as a ‘’filler-item’’ in concerts.  It is a raga that is worth exploring further.  This is a raga that holds its own and definitely occupies a place of pride in the Carnatic music firmament.

 

 

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Akshaya Linga Vibho!!!

Akshayalinga Shanmukha Page 1

akSaya linga vibhO svayambhO

Raga:shaHNkarAbharaNam / Tala: mishra cApu

Pallavi:

akshaya linga vibhO svayambhO

akhilANDa kOTi prabhO pahi shambO

Anupallavi:

akSarasvarUpa amita pratApa

ArUDha vRSa vAha jagan mOha

Madhyamakala:

dakSa shikSaNa dakSatara sura

lakSaNa vidhi vi-lakSaNa lakSya

lakSaNa bahu vicakSaNa sudha-

bhakSaNa gurukaTAkSa vikSaNa

Charanam:

badarIvanamUla nAyikA sahita

bhadrakALIsha bhakta vihita

madana janakAdi dEvamahita

mAyAkArya kalanA rahita

sadaya guruguha tAta guNAtIta

sAdhujanOpEta shaHNkara navanIta-

hRdaya vibhAta tumburu saHNgIta

hrIm kAra sambhUta hEmagiri nAtha

Madhyamakala:

sadAshrita kalpaka mahIruha

padAmbuja bhava ratha gaja turaga

padAdi samyuta caitrOtsava

sadAshiva saccidAnandamaya

 

  1. Introduction

It is well-acknowledged that SankarAbharaNam is a melody that enjoys great importance universally, in almost all the systems of music, from time immemorial.  A raga that is almost similar to the Major Diatonic scale, or the C Major of Western music, this rAga definitely enjoys a regal status in the realm of Indian music and particularly in Carnatic music.

Being the 29th mELa, SankarAbharaNam is one of the six mELas that can boast of possessing symmetrical tetra chords in the scale arrangement and it is one of those grandest of melakarta ragas that possesses samvAdi pairs (consonant pairing of notes) for all the svaras, like S-M1, S-P, R2-P, R2-D2 & G3-N3.  Almost as a natural consequence, it is not really surprising that the rAga is so appealing to the senses and that it instantly ushers in a mood of sublimity considering that there is so much of samvAditva or consonance inherent in its structure. Also, all svaras excepting the madhyamam, are tIvra svaras. This shuddha madhyama here acts as a bridge and balances the tIvra svaras of the pUrvAnga and the uttarAnga, thus sustaining the innate sublimity of the melody throughout.

Muttuswami Dikshitar’s akshaya linga vibhO  is one of the very popular kritis on the concert platform.

Without doubt one of the grandest compositions extant in Carnatic music, Akshayalinga Vibho is a brilliant testimony to Dikshitar’s genius.   The prosodic beauty of the kriti blends perfectly and is stunningly beautiful musically.  Dikshitar’s complete command of the Sanskrit language, the magnificent descriptions of the deity (this kriti is said to be based on Lord Siva at Kivalur, a town near Nagapattinam in Tamizh Nadu), and above all the really really beautiful Shankarabharanam that is showcased in full glory through this magnum opus of a kriti.

With reverence and humility this author has attempted to provide a glimpse into some of the eternal truths that have been symbolized in this kriti.

  1. Pallavi

akshaya linga vibhO svayambhO

Siva’s linga is symbolic of the Parabrahman and his swaroopa.  And generally in the temples dedicated to Siva – at least in South India, the form to which ‘archana’ is offered to, is the linga.

In Tamizh we say ‘uruvam’ (the swaroopam – that which is visible) and ‘aruvam’ which is the ‘archana murthi’, i.e. the form to which prayers are offered.

A combination of both ‘uruvam’ and ‘aruvam’ becomes ‘aruvuruvam’ and this is the linga.

Also the linga’s shape is basically elliptical.  Since the Earth is also elliptical the linga can be interpreted to be that Siva is beyond borders and shape (yellattaikkaDandavan).

‘vibhu’ – means the leader – and Siva is the leader of everything and consequently all the ‘vaibhavam’ (opulence) are his attributes.

And he is ‘svayambhu’ – he came into being by himself – no one was responsible for his birth or creation.

akhilANDa kOTi prabhO pAhi shambhO

It is immediately apparent that the word ‘akhilANDa’ is a ‘sandhi’ of ‘akhila’ and ‘aNDa’.

‘akhila’ – means all or everything  and ‘aNDa’ denotes the universe we live in.  kOTi of course is crores and Siva is the prabhu who rules over all the several crores of universes.

We all know that beyond this universe and beyond the Milky Way lie several universes – that we cannot with our limited knowledge, understand or comprehend.  What Dikshitar emphasizes is that Siva is lord of all those universes and more!

pAhi shambO – ostensibly is a vocative for ‘Siva, protect!’  The word ShambhO consists of the syllables ‘sham’ and ‘bhu’.  ‘sham’ is mangalam – all that is auspicious.  And ‘bhu’ means origination.  Therefore Siva’s origin is auspicious and he symbolizes all the good, auspicious things – happiness, peace and prosperity leading to bliss.  As his very name suggests (Sam karoti iti Sankara — “He who blesses is Sankara”).

 

  1. Anupallavi

akSarasvarUpa amita pratApa

ArUDha vRSa vAha jagan mOha

Moving on to the anupallavi, Siva is ‘akSarasvarUpa’.  ‘akSara’ means the alphabet and he represents the alphabet in order to communicate and the vehicle that he uses for this communication is also his own self and hence he is himself the ‘akSarasvarUpa’.

The mode of communication and the vehicle for all communication took shape by itself (‘swa-roopa’) and he is the embodiment of this and therefore he is the basis for all language.

‘amita’ is someone who is absolutely without any shortcomings whatsoever; and

‘pratApa’ denotes qualities.  Hence ‘amita pratApa’ typifies complete absence of shortcomings and blemishes with all the best qualities to the brim.

In the next line, Dikshitar changes tack slightly by describing Siva as ‘ArUDha vRSa vAha’.  ArUDha literally means ‘having climbed’ (or ‘seated on’ for a better contextual interpretation!) and the subsequent words ‘vRSa vAha’ is the picture of Siva on his mount, the Nandi or the divine Bull (‘vRSa vAha’).

Before Dikshitar embarks on the wonderful Madhyama Kala passage, he ends this particular portion with ‘jagan moha’ – which can be interpreted to mean that Siva creates all the illusion and holds the world (jagan) in his grip of illusion.

It would not be out of place to mention here that Siva represents constant action.  When we consider the structure of the basic unit, i.e. an atom and its structure, we see that the electrons around the atom are in a perennial state of motion and are eternally dynamic.  The nucleus is stable and Vishnu reclining on Adi Sesha represents the nucleus while Siva represents the electrons.  The electrons are constantly moving in a frenetic pace and this is Siva’s taandavam.  In complete contrast is Vishnu who is the epitome of calmness in his reclining yogic posture.

 

  1. Anupallavi – Madhyma Kala

dakSa shikSaNa dakSatara sura

lakSaNa vidhi vilakSaNa lakSya

lakSaNa bahu vicakSaNa sudha-

bhakSaNa gurukaTAkSa vikSaNa

Without doubt the madhyama kala that follows the anupallavi is truly mind-boggling in terms of the fluidity of language and the sheer ease with which Dikshitar has employed the use of the relatively rarer syllable ‘ksha’ as the ‘dvityaakshara praasam’.

Dikshitar begins the madhyma kala with ‘dakSa shikSaNa’.  The story of Siva’s notorious Father-in-law Daksha is well-known.  And Daksha represents the ego and Siva is destroyer of the ego, which truly is the cause for all conflict in modern society!

dakSatara

‘tara’ denotes the comparative in the three degrees of adjective comparisons.  Siva is better than anyone else in imparting to Daksha that the ego is the cause for all trouble and misery and he puts this most effectively with ‘dakshatara’.

‘sura lakSaNa’ – he has all the possible qualities that are embodied by the ‘suras’ i.e. the good people.  ‘Suras’ can be interpreted to mean the devas as well.  This expression basically denotes that Siva is the embodiment of beauty.

vidhi vilakSaNa – he will do everything in the straightest possible way – there is nothing roundabout or better still, no ‘beating about the bush’ with him!

lakSya lakSaNa – he is the ultimate aim of all aims and goals.

bahu vicakSaNa – he is superlatively intelligent and he is the one who consumed (“bhakshaNa”) nectar (“sudhA”) during the churning of the ocean in the Kurma Avatara episode.

gurukaTAkSa vikSaNa

‘vikSaNa’ means a side glance (a better and more effective word in Tamizh is ‘kadaikkan paarvai’ – here is where translation becomes woefully inadequate!)

The Guru is the adi guru which is Dakshinamurti; and Siva in the form of Dakshinamurti with his ‘kadaikkaNpArvai’.  This is also referred to and applied by Dikshitar to goddess Kamalamba in his in his meditative Bhairavi navavaranam (katAksha vIkshaNya)

 

  1. Charanam

badarIvanamUla nAyikA sahita

badarivanam denotes Badrinath – the well-known badari kshetram.

mUla nAyikA sahita  – he is always with the feminine form i.e. Lalitha

The famous stotra “… lalitA pumrUpA krsna vigrahA” implies that Lalitha’s masculine form is actually Krishna.  The feminine is Lalitha and it is with this feminine form that Siva is in eternal companionship.

bhadrakALIsha bhakta vihita

He is the lord of Bhadrakaali and he is always in such a state of tranquility that his devotees’ feel a calmness of stature especially with regards to the mind.  He is endowed with the quality to soothe the disturbed minds of his devotees.

madana janakAdi dEvamahita

He is honoured and praised by Mahavishnu (the father of Cupid – madana janaka) and other devas.

mAyAkArya kalanA rahita

He is the one who is devoid of, and beyond (“rahita”) the effects (“kalanA”) of activities of delusion (“mAyA kArya”).

sadaya guruguha tAta guNAtIta

‘daya’ means compassion and the syllable ‘sa’ denotes aggregation.  Hence Siva is ‘sadaya’ – he is the aggregation and therefore the epitome of compassion.

The word ‘sadaya’ could also be interpreted to mean his son, i.e. Subramanya denoted here by Dikshitar’s signature ‘guruguha’ and hence Subramanya is someone who’s an ocean of compassion and Siva is *his* father.  And he is beyond the three gunas – sattva, rajas and tamas.

sAdhujanOpEta

sAdhujanOpEta is the formation of two words – sAdhujana + upEta

‘upeta’ is the final abode (literally it means reaching) and Siva is the final abode of all the good people (sAdhujana).

shaHNkara navanIta hRdaya vibhAta tumburu saHNgIta

vibhAta here means melting.  Siva’s heart melts like butter on hearing the music of Tumburu (a celestial saint like Narada).  As a natural result, this leads to ‘hrIm kAra’.

hrIm kAra sambhUta hEmagiri nAtha

Thus this is how the holy ‘hrim kAra’ makes its presence felt (‘sambUta’ means making its presence felt).

hEmagiri nAtha – he is the lord of the mountain of gold (denoting ‘ponnambalam’).

Syama Sastri’s well-known Kalyani kriti ‘himAdri sutE’ has the anupallavi beginning with ‘sumEru madhya vAsini’.

The mountain that is denoted by ‘sumEru’ (higher than mEru) is said to be even higher and ‘above’ Kailasa.   ‘sumEru’ is also known as ‘hEmAdri’ and this is said to consist of four peaks.   Goddess as ‘ambAL’ or Sakti is said to be seated in the epicentre of these four peaks and this is the centre that is ‘srInagara’ (hence she is srInagara vAsini).

Since Siva and Sakti are really one, and the ‘hrim kAram’ is actually the representation of hEmagiri and the lord of this hEmagiri  is hEmagiri nAtha!

 

  1. Charanam – Madhyma Kala

sadAshrita kalpaka mahIruha

padAmbuja bhava ratha gaja turaga

padAdi samyuta caitrOtsava

sadAshiva saccidAnandamaya

 

sadAshrita = sadA + Ashrita

sadA – always;

Ashrita – taken or sought as a refuge or shelter

mahIruha = mahi + ruha;  mahi – the earth and ruha – originating and hence mahIruha means a tree.  Hence he is always the ‘kalpaka mahiruha’ – the wish-fulfilling tree to those who have taken or sought refuge in him.

padAmbuja – feet like a lotus

bhava is one of the eight names of the Lord as Rudra.  Hence his consort is Bhavani.

Here Muthuswami Dikshitar gets into the description of the Chaitrotsava – the festival that takes place in the month of Chaitra.  The magnificent festival consists of a pageantry of chariots, elephants, horses and the army.

ratha – chariot gaja – elephant and turaga – horse

padAdi – all the sentries, armies

samyuta – in confluence with

sadAshiva saccidAnandamaya

sadAshiva – he is always imparting auspiciousness.

saccidAnandamaya

sat denotes the purest form of sattva guna.  Chit is pure intelligence.  When ‘sat’ and ‘chit’ combine, ‘Ananda’ i.e. bliss is the result.  And he is the embodiment of this i.e. ‘maya’.

  1. A Few Additional Thoughts

It is common knowledge that the music of the pallavi especially the way the kriti begins is very similar to Tyagaraja’s well-known ‘manasu swAdhInamai’.

That apart, it is worthwhile to point out some of the very noteworthy points of this wonderful composition.  In the pallavi, when Dikshitar addresses Siva as akhilANDa kOTI prabhO, he comes to rest on the Madhya shadja, after he has painted a very convincing introduction to Shankarabharanam that traverses right upto the taara sthaayi madhyamam.  The coming to rest on the madhyama shadjam produces a wonderful effect of ‘visranti’.  And it seems as if he gets up again with an impassioned appeal for protection, ‘pAhi SambhO’!

Dikshitar indulges in a similar exercise in the Anupallavi – he effectively builds up a crescendo in the second line (ArUDha vRSa vAha…) by first preparing and constructing the base in the middle octave for the first line “akSarasvarUpa amita pratApa”.   The madhyama kala’s music is also built up in a similar fashion.

The relatively lengthy but thoroughly appealing and scintillating charanam is one of Dikshitar’s best and is also a testimony to two things – one being the limitless creativity of Dikshitar and the second being the limitless scope of the Emperor Raga Shankarabharanam.  Nowhere does the music of the kriti become repetitive or monotonous – it sounds uniformly fresh and sonorous all through the various descriptions of Siva as the almighty.

One can only conclude that by a stroke of great fortune, we all have currently the felicity of listening, enjoying and appreciating such a wonderful creation of a realized soul like Dikshitar.  Clearly with a creation like Akshayalinga vibho, Muthuswami Dikshitar transcended the mundane and proved and continues to prove to the world that the sole purpose of music is to make man perfect and help him realize his unity with God.  Akshayalinga Vibho is thus an eternal fragrance left by Muthuswami Dikshitar that shall never wither.

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R.R.Sabha Trichy – 100 Years Young & Still Going Strong!

On March 18, 2016 I was privileged to perform for Rasika Ranjana Sabha (R.R.Sabha), Trichy’s Centenary Year Concerts.  This is an organization that is not new to me, having performed there many times, but my association goes back to my MBA student days in the then Regional Engineering College (now National Institute of Technology, NIT) in the mid-1990s.  R.R.Sabha used to conduct concerts regularly with veteran L.Venkataraman (popularly known as LV) being in charge.

Along with classmate and fellow Carnatic music aficionado Arun Subramanian, we would make sure we never missed any concert that was happening in the precincts of Trichy and naturally it was usually R.R.Sabha where we attended the most concerts.

The first concert that I attended, I remember was S.Sowmya’s Eka Raga Concert and she took up Sahana.  Starting off with an unusual ata tala varnam, Sowmya rendered various items in Sahana including a very impactful and weighty rendition of the Kamalamba Navavaranam.  The piece-de-resistance was the dwi-nadai pallavi in adi talam that she rendered impeccably and most aesthetically.  The purvaangam (first half) was set in tisra gati and the uttarangam in khanda gati.

During my studentship at NIT Trichy, I got the opportunity to perform on the night of Sivaratri at the very hallowed venue of the Sri Tyagaraja temple in Tiruvarur.  The concert was arranged through R.R.Sabha by none other than LV sir.  Some of my NIT Trichy MBA classmates had also come for that concert from Trichy.  These included Babu Lourdu Raj, C.M.Srikumar, Anand Vaideeswaran, Amitabh Kant and of course Arun Subramanian.  We had a most privileged tour of the grand temple that included the celebrated Kamalaalayam and we were also taken to the Trimurti vaaggeyakaaraas’ houses.   As a practising Carnatic vocal musician, the temple of Tiruvarur and the Kamalaalayam without doubt has that extra special hold and all of this was made possible thanks to R.R.Sabha, Trichy!

After passing out from NIT, I next performed for the R.R.Sabha in 2002 as part of a festival dedicated to the Trimurtis – Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Syama Sastri.  From then onwards, I have had the good fortune to be a regular performer at the FGN Auditorium.

Being the centenary year, I was honoured to have a great veteran team comprising of acknowledged stalwarts – T.K.V.Ramanujacharyulu on the violin, B.Harikumar on the mridangam and Alathur Rajaganesh on the khanjira.  The concert was held at the premises of the Mahatma Gandhi Centenary Vidyalaya, Tennur.  Throughout the centenary series concerts, R.R.Sabha has made it a point to honour prominent vidwans and vidushis based in Trichy.  The artist that was honoured on the day of my concert was mridangam vidwan Salem K.Srinivasan.  More about this later!

Established in 1914, R.R.Sabha has completed more than one hundred years of service in the promotion of Art & Culture.  A very tastefully designed souvenir has been printed to mark this exceptional and enviable milestone.

RRSabha Souvenir

R.R.Sabha Centenary Year Souvenir Cover – Featuring the landmark of Trichy – the Rock Fort and the Ucchippillayaar Temple

 

The spirit of Trichy and the camaraderie that various Trichy-based organizations have amongst themselves is clearly visible.  The number of good wishes and full page congratulatory messages from various sabhas, music schools and organizations that appear in the first half of the souvenir bear testimony to this, giving the impression that the Trichy bonhomie is definitely something unique and enviable!

The souvenir carries snippets of the first annual report of the sabha for the year ending in October 1915.  These have been painstakingly scanned and compiled by Gomathi Venkat and make for fascinating viewing.

As befitting a centenary year souvenir, it carries articles written by wide spectrum of distinguished scholars, drama stars, professional musicians (one of which happens to be yours truly, ahem!) and other veterans.  And this souvenir is a wonderful example where all the articles are extremely interesting in their own right and consequently becomes definitely a collector’s item.  Small wonder that I ended up reading through the entire compilation well into the night after boarding the Pandian Express the night after the R.R.Sabha concert!

Seetha Rajan’s ”The Making of a Musician’’ is worth pondering upon and the critical points she makes are valid like never before.  One very pertinent issue she dwells at length is when she says, ‘’With the rapid advancement of science and technology, today, education in general is viewed as an acquisition of technical abilities or specialisation in a field that can assure economic security.  Although this stance may be justified, the focus on cerebral developments sans the lateral mellowing influence of arts and literature, may eventually lead to a lopsided development in the personality of children.’’  This unfortunately is SO VERY true nowadays.  And even when children do take either music or dance classes, these are the first to be sacrificed when the dreaded word *exams* looms in the horizon!  I strongly am of the opinion that the frequency of the classes could be reduced – to once a week perhaps, but completely shutting out music or dance classes isn’t at all the correct solution.  It definitely seems to be easiest solution for most parents in the name of reducing distractions to intensive studying or swotting for exams.  But easy solutions never give the best results, do they?

On another point, underscoring the importance of parents in the process of identifying and nurturing the child’s innate talent, Seetha Rajan goes on to emphasize, ‘’contribution of a teacher in turning a raw entrant into a worthy musician is monumental.  A right blend of competence and commitment makes an ideal teacher.  The teacher-pupil relationship in the words of Sri Narayana Menon, ‘’is a communion of mind whereby the essence of a tradition is passed on to another generation’’.

This brings me immediately to my Guru, Late Shri T.R.Subramanyam (TRS).  I am right now re-learning and revisiting a composition that some of us students learnt from him many years ago.  The kriti is Syama Sastri’s creation in Punnagavarali, Kanakashaila Vihaarini set to adi tala.  The way he has conceived his interpretation of the kriti after learning it from his gurus like Musiri Subramanya Iyer and T.Brinda, is truly a joy – both to listen to and to learn it!

‘The Kriti as Evolved by Sri Tyagaraja’ by Dr. Radha Bhaskar is interestingly presented with insightful points.  She puts it extremely well when she says, ‘’in the music of Thyagaraja, we find a perfect blend of tradition and innovation.  Many ragas which were known only by their name during his time began to blossom with life by his touch.  Of each of them, he made a fit vehicle for conveying varied emotions which others may have felt but not able to express.  The fertility of imagination and variety, richness and grace in the formation of compositions has opened up endless vistas for the music explorer.’’  Dr. Radha Bhaskar points out how Thyagaraja was a trend setter in employing Sangathis and his profuse use of the Deshadi Tala.

Carnatic Vocalist Trichy K Ramesh’s article on Nadopasana emphasizes many truths and principles about one of the greatest of all arts – Carnatic music.  Rendering a kriti with full devotion is equivalent to chanting a mantra one crore times and consequently Yagnavalkya Maharishi says that Nadopasana is the best way to attend Moksha.  I am reminded of an interview given by Dr. M. Narmadha on her maestro father M.S.Gopalakrishnan in the well-known magazine Sruti.  She said that all their practice sessions would consist of, after the basic exercises were over, the day’s navagraha kriti and one of the Kamalamba Navavaranams of Muthuswami Dikshitar which would definitely be played before going on to practice the items for the next concert.  This in my opinion is definitely true Nadopasana and underscores what Trichy Ramesh has stated in his article.

There are two other articles that really caught my attention and kept me totally engrossed.  One is titled The Evolution of Rasika Ranjana Sabha by Smt. Padma Swaminathan, daughter of none other than F.G.Natesa Aiyer (FGN) after whom the R.R.Sabha hall in Trichy Town is named.  It’s interesting to note from this write-up that before staging full length plays in Tamizh, FGN actually achieved the required capability for staging full length Shakespearian dramas!  Padma Swaminathan’s descriptions of her early memories of the Sabha being a structure made out of tin sheets, the surface being in a slope so that back benchers also had a clear view of the stage, make for fascinating reading.  Her descriptions of the stage decoration which was one of the main attractions of R.R.Sabha truly stand out.  This article is a must-read for all lovers of art and is especially a lesson on the attention to detail which FGN would give to the staging of each play.

Prema Nandakumar’s article on FGN titled A Great Man’s Vision is easily one of the best articles on the person responsible for the genesis of the R.R.Sabha.  I have heard the Srirangam-based writer speak on the occasion of Dr. Raghavan’s Memorial Day in Chennai and while I have heard of her outstanding scholarship and writing skills, this was perhaps the first time I was reading something written by her.  She begins her article by quoting in turn, Suganthi Krishnamacharí’s article in The Hindu on the R.R.Sabha!  Proceeding to describe the enacting of English plays, Prema Nandakumar goes on to describe most engagingly how FGN, despite his passion for drama, never strayed into the film world barring one solitary exception which was Seva Sadanam (which incidentally launched M.S.Subbulakshmi’s film career).  A most interesting description of Seva Sadanam’s theme follows (I never knew it was based on an epoch-making Urdu novel by Premchand, which was in turn serialized in Ananda Vikatan when Kalki Krishnamurthy was its editor).  The article further describes how famed director K.Subrahmanyam’s imagination was caught by the Tamizh translation of Premchand’s novel and how MS was invited to take up the heroine’s role and Kalki’s subsequent review of the film.

Prema Nandakumar’s article is nothing short of brilliant.  Totally enraptured with her cogent and eloquent writing style, I called noted danseuse and critic Nandini Ramani and asked the latter how Prema Nandakumar was associated with Dr. Raghavan, Nandini’s illustrious father.

Nandini Ramani replied briefly, ‘’Read the Stuti Kusumanjali’’.

Immediately I fished out my copy of Stuti Kusumanjali (a garland of tributes to the one and only Dr. V.Raghavan) and true enough, it was sheer joy to read Prema Nandakumar’s write-up  ‘’The Hero as Scholar’’ – a sparkling tribute to the multi-faceted scholar.

Googling Prema Nandakumar’s name, one comes to know of her illustrious lineage and also that she received her PhD summa cum laude as early as 1961 and there are several books to her credit.  Being a die-hard book lover, it is truly gratifying to know that there is another wonderful world waiting to be explored, created by this extraordinary scholar-writer from Srirangam!

It was of utmost satisfaction for me that mridangam vidwan Salem K. Srinivasan was honoured on the day of my concert by R.R.Sabha.  I have had the honour of teaming up with Salem Srinivasan for numerous concerts both in Chennai and all over Tamizh Nadu, apart from Trichy of course.  A left-handed vidwan, Salem Srinivasan plays with utmost sensitivity to lyrics and truly enhances a concert.  His skills in his taniyavardhanam are something else again.  It’s definitely a joy to perform with him.

Coimbatore Tyagaraja Aradhana Photo with Salem Srinivasan

Concert for Sri Thyaga Brahma Gaanaanjali, Coimbatore with M.R.Gopinath and Salem Srinivasan

Veteran and senior vidwan B.Harikumar in his speech commemorating Srinivasan, remarked that the latter was actually ambidextrous – if he chooses to, then Srinivasan can actually play right-handed as well!

Salem Srinivasan with Harikumar

Veteran and senior vidwan B.Harikumar with Salem Srinivasan after the former draped a ponnaadai around the latter

 

 

Yours truly with Salem Srinivasan - apologies for the grainy photo...

Yours truly with Salem Srinivasan after the latter’s felicitation function – apologies for the grainy photo…

As a performing artist, to me it is verily a matter of great prestige and distinction to be a part of R.R.Sabha and its centenary year celebrations.  I offer my sincere thanks and gratitude to my former NIT professor and secretary of R.R.Sabha Shri N.Sekar for his constant encouragement and support and also for featuring my article ‘’Allied Ragas – Malavi & Chenchukambhoji’’ in the prestigious centenary souvenir.

Keep going R.R.Sabha!  You will without doubt celebrate most successfully, your bicentenary!

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My Uncle Shri P.S.Krishnamurthi – Veterinary Science, Carnatic Music, Letter-writing & Much More

Krishnamurthi Mama

This is the first time I’m doing a blog post about a just departed relative.  Something in me impels me to write about Krishnamurthi Mama – one of my mother’s elder brothers who passed away yesterday morning.

He was the one near relative in my mother’s generation with whom I have perhaps shared the closest bond.  As a teenager, when I wanted to impress upon the world at large what *I* thought was right, he was always ready to patiently listen and surprisingly would accept my viewpoint for what it was.  Ranging from opinions on whether brahminic rituals were important or not, prevailing politics and Carnatic music, Mama was always open to ideas and was always ready for discussion.  The best part was that he would never be either dismissive nor force his ideas on anyone else.

The most remarkable quality that stood out about Mama were his amazing levels of equanimity.  He was perhaps the only sibling out of eight who had such an even-tempered nature.  I for one have never seen him losing his temper or his cool under any circumstance.  And on the other hand Mama would always be ready for a joke and would round off with his characteristic guffaw.

Generally in eulogies, in my world of Carnatic music in particular and especially in condolence meetings, people will always remark of a departed artist that he or she never spoke ill of any other fellow artist.  I think this applies to Krishnamurthi Mama in full measure.  I don’t remember ever having heard him speak ill of anyone.  To me he appeared as someone who calmly accepted whatever life had to offer and he had no regrets with regards to all aspects of his life.

Starting the wedding with the mandatory Mama maalai!

Starting the wedding with the mandatory Mama maalai!

Like all his siblings, he was deeply interested in Carnatic music.  His favourite raga was Sahana.  We have had some *hugely* interesting discussions on Carnatic music, particularly with regards to compositions, ragas, artists and composers in general.  He was a bit of a singer in his own right – he had a strong and ringing voice and would render small kritis in his own inimitable way.  I remember him commenting on the raga Natakurinji during my elder brother’s wedding at Madurai where Krishnamurthi mama was staying with his daughter and son-in-law, (this is as clear to me as it was yesterday), ‘’you know, I don’t know that I like Natakurinji as much as I like Sahana!”  It’s a different matter that I didn’t agree with him *at all*!

Mama also used remark on the grandeur of the Carnatic music concerts that would be held at the Ponniamman Temple in Purasawakam, Chennai.  He once told me how he would rush madly home on his bicycle from college in a frenzy to be in time to catch maestro M.S.Gopalakrishnan’s violin solo broadcast on the All India Radio.

With my father during the nitchayathaartham

With my parents during the nitchayathaartham

In terms of his career, he was an extremely well-respected professor of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science in the Madras Veterinary College (MVC).  He was naturally good in academics – my mother has always told me that while her 2nd eldest brother Nagasundaram was undoubtedly the brains of the family, Krishnamurthi would ALWAYS stand first in his class throughout in school.  Several of his students from the Madras Veterinary College, who hailed from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, went back there and set up their own veterinary clinics and coincidentally, one such vet became our dog’s doctor when my father was stationed in KL for a few years!  I can never forget the time when Dr. Asokan, visiting us for the first time at our residence in Bangsar in KL, remarked to my mother that she resembled his professor so startlingly!

At the Kasi Yatri, Mama is standing behind me.

At the Kasi Yatrai, Mama dutifully stands behind me…

For many years after his retirement, he used to come to Delhi to craft questions for the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) Entrance exams at the request of the UPSC.  He first came to Delhi in the year 1982.  I remember when I took him to the Qutub Minar, he was deeply interested in whatever he saw and how the historical monument had the touch of the Hindu shrines about it.  While my brother Ravi took him to see the celebrated Red Fort, I took him to the Yamuna riverside (yes, the river was actually clean, with copious water and quite unpolluted then, sniff!) and we had a very nice time sitting by the calmly flowing river, the clear waters lapping at our feet.

He was a prodigious letter-writer till the end of the last millennium.  I remember being amazed by the stack of crisp new and unused inland letter sheets he would have ready clamped to his cardboard writing pad at his table, for him to dash off correspondence to someone or the other.  And to Krishnamurthi mama, a letter to a teenage nephew like me was as important as a letter to the bank manager or to one of his siblings.  He had a natural flair to write letters and had a very typical and charming rounded handwriting, quite unlike his other brothers whose handwriting were quite similar to one another.

The Mama maalai - another shot...

The Mama maalai – another shot…

Till his end he retained his abilities for making sparkling conversation.  He was equally interested and enthusiastic to know just *why* I missed the flight in 2014 to Bombay for my concert at the Fine Arts Society, Chembur, just as he was in spiritual matters and discussions particularly with regards to the Gayatri Mantra and the Sandhyavandanam.

He was very particular about his Sandhyavandanam and was very meticulous to perform his nitya karma.  Small wonder his end came so peacefully to have finally and calmly breathe his last in his son’s arms yesterday morning.

Rest in peace Krishnamurthi Mama.  Your enthusiasm for life, your cheerful disposition and most of all, your characteristically ringing laughter will continue to ring in our ears forever.

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Mysore Vasudevacharya’s Dwaadashanama Kriti 4

Fourth Name – Govinda

Meaning:

  1. Lord of the worlds (the syllable ‘’go’’ denotes the world)
  2. ‘’go’’ also denotes speech i.e. the words of the Vedas; hence He is one who is discovered or realized through the words of the Vedas
  3. One who gives us the power of speech
  4. Friend of the cows

 

Details of the kriti: 

mAmavasu gOvinda – rAgA sAmA – rUpaka tALA

 

P: mAmavAsu gOvinda

kOmala caraNAravinda

 

A:  sAmajAdinuta mukunda

shyAma rucira cikura brnda

 

C:  vAsudEva vanaja nayana

bhAsura sharadindu vadana

shrI samEtanata samadhana

bhAsamAna kanaka vasana

 

 

mAmavAsu gOvinda – protect me quickly O Govinda!

kOmala caraNAravinda – O one with delicate, lotus-like feet

sAmajAdinuta – O one worshipped by the elephant (Gajendra) and others

mukunda – O giver of liberation

shyAma rucira cikura brnda – dark, beautiful hair (chikura) curls

vAsudEva vanaja nayana – O lotus-eyed Vasudeva

bhAsura sharadindu vadana – with a face shining like the autumn moon

shrI samEtanata samadhana – one who is always with his consort Lakshmi (Sri) and one who is worshipped by rishis would have attained the state of calmness

bhAsamAna kanaka vasana – O one with  a resplendent golden garment

 

Additional notes:

A very charming kriti in the equally charming raga Sama.  This kriti albeit hardly known, holds its own against perhaps the most popular kriti in Sama – Annapurne Visaalaakshi of Dikshitar.  And also against other compositions like the runaway hit Maanasa Sanchara re, Patnam Subramanya Iyer’s reasonably well-known Maravakave and Tyagaraja’s grand heavy-weight Saantamuleka.

The opening pallavi beginning in the taara sthaayi shadjam is an impassioned appeal to Govinda for protection and that too, with haste!

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OST @ Music Academy – Dec 28, 2015

Team: O.S.Thyagarajan (OST) – T.H.Subramaniam (violin) – K.V.Prasad (mridangam) – B.S.Purushottam (kanjira)

There is always a sense of completeness in O.S.Thyagarajan’s concerts.   OST’s concerts demonstrate that when one is steadfast to tradition and when the artist adheres to principles without playing unduly to the gallery, there will always be something for everyone, the connoisseur and the laity alike.

Beginning with the Kalyani adi tala varnam vanajakshi (attributed to Poochi Srinivasa Iyengar and fiercely disputed by many others!), OST rather surprisingly sang Tyagaraja’s Muddumomu next after singing just a snatch of an alapana of Suryakantam.  A relaxed and involved Nee bhaktibhagya sudhaa (Jayamanohari – Rupaka – Tyagaraja) followed.  Crisp and brief one avartana swaras were sung for all the items till then.  Swaras for the pallavi line for the Jayamanohari kriti were especially charming particularly the swaras ending in the upper octave d s’ r’ g’ m’ Nee bhakti with the nee being rendered as a descending phrase from the taara sthaayi madhyama with a smooth and effortless briga.

Perhaps the submain was the biggest surprise.   OST sang an expansive alapana of Vasantabhairavi.  The very first phrase firmly established the raga and OST being the veteran he is, rendered the alapana with ease and abandon alternating the slow phrases with the fast with just the right doses.  I was listening to such an elaborate alapana of Vasantabhairavi after a very long time and to me the raga alapana in particular was pure delight.  Well-known violinist from Thrissur, T.H.Subramaniam responded to the alapana admirably with aplomb.

OST presented Muthuswami Dikshitar’s Prasanna Venkateswaram set to tisra jati triputa tala.  Though I have known that this kriti is part of OST’s vast repertoire, I was nevertheless hearing it from him for the first time.  OST rendered the beautiful kriti taking care to enunciate and highlight the saahitayam clearly.  Particularly OST’s evocative rendering of the line ‘rasikashEkharam kRpAkaram rakSita bhakta Anandakaram’ struck an indelible chord making it a proverbial ‘aha’ moment!

Once again succinct one avartana sarva laghu swaras with apt responses by T.H.Subramaniam were rendered and the kriti was brought to a very satisfying close.  It made me draw a sort-of parallel – the late D.K.Jayaraman made Dikshitar’s Kannada Bangala kriti Renuka Devi his very own; here was OST who definitely has made Prasanna Venkateswaram his own!

OST next rendered Syama Sastri’s taruNamIdammA in Gowlipantu, followed by Tyagaraja’s sanAtanA paramapAvana in Phalamanjari.  That OST has a penchant for Tyagaraja kritis is well-known.  I will never forget the akhandam (organized by Ghatam V.Suresh and others) held earlier this year in February at the Sri Raghavendra Swami Temple in Dr. Ranga Road, Mylapore.  OST sang at 2:00 AM and his unflagging energy at that hour, and the complete dedication with which he rendered several Tyagaraja kritis in quick succession without pausing for any breath was truly mind-boggling.

Coming back to the concert, when the time was around 9:55 AM, OST launched into an expansive alapana of Kambhoji.  OST developed the raga traditionally by starting off on the panchamam and then moving to the taara sthaayi.  After effortlessly delving into the ocean of Kambhoji in that octave he then proceeded to come down to the Madhya sthaayi dhaivatam and finally ended the elaborate and extremely wholesome alapana.

T.H.Subramaniam, on the contrary, started the alapana from the mandhara sthaayi – his first few phrases almost reminiscent of Dikshitar’s masterpiece Sri Subramanyaya Namaste.  With his violin’s tonal quality being wonderfully sonorous, T.H.Subramaniam in turn played a leisurely and unhurried alapana, traversing all the octaves, painting his own picture of the raga.  Rightfully OST himself was deeply appreciative of the THS’ response to his Kambhoji alapana!

The kriti?

Okay, the kriti was O Rangasaayi!  With doubt, it is Tyagaraja’s ever popular masterpiece and arguably the most popular kriti ever in Kambhoji.   As OST started the grand composition, I was led to ponder upon one point – how many times would this kriti have been rendered at the dais of the Music Academy?  In all probability Music Academy herself would have clearly lost count!

Yet, when OST began O Rangasaayi, the delighted ripple that it sent through the vast audience was unmistakable.  As I observed the people of my row sitting up straight and thereupon enthusiastically ‘’putting’’ the talam, one point was very evident.  No matter how many times a kriti like O Rangasaayi is rendered, these masterpieces will always, ALWAYS generate fulsome enthusiasm among the listeners, even if rendered for the nth time.  Of course, the pedigree of the vidwan or the vidushi is a major factor and hence if someone of OST’s stature renders O Rangasaayi, then the audience’s enthusiastic response is practically a given!

This point was underscored further when OST executed the niraval at the customary line ‘’Bhooloka vaikuntam’’.  The senior vidwan took his time to develop the niraval and this was obviously no mechanical exercise.  OST’s sheer comfort with the aspect of niraval per se and him being supremely ‘’at home’’ in  the taara sthaayi was exhibited in full glory as he sang the elaborate niraval and after traversing all over the upper octave, finally came to rest on the life note of Kambhoji, which is the taara sthaayi gandhaaram.  The culmination of the superb niraval in keezh kaalam ended in a spontaneous and enthusiastic applause.

Veteran K.V.Prasad on the mridangam has full understanding of sahityam which he exhibited in his thoughtful and sensitive playing throughout the concert.  B.S.Purushottam, another well-known star kanjira player responded likewise.  It was interesting to see to Purshottam respond to the vocalist while Prasad played for the violinist in some of the segments of the niraval and during the kuraippu swaras.

A delectable Muruganin Marupeyar Azhagu of Guru Surajananda in Behag and Khanda chapu (tuned by T.M.Thyagarajan) and OST’s compulsory piece that he renders in every concert as the last item – Tyagaraja’s Naadupai (Madhyamavati, Khanda Chapu) brought this wonderfully satisfying concert to a fulfilling close.

As the curtains came down and as we audience stood up and prepared to move towards the exit, I heard a rasika in the row behind remark that there was no Ragam, Tanam and Pallavi.  His companion returned quick as lightning, “but there was absolutely no NEED for a Pallavi!’’

Amen!  🙂

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Mysore Vasudevachar’s Dwaadasha Naama Kritis – Kritis 1, 2 & 3

  1. First Name – Kesava

Meaning:

  1. One with beautiful hair
  2. Destroyer of asura Kesi
  3. One who has rays that brighten the whole world – one who’s in the form of Surya and Chandra

Kriti Details

shrI kEshava mAm pAlaya – rAgA bhairavi – rUpaka tALA

P:  shrI kEshava mAm pAlaya rAkEndu mukha krpAlaya

 

A:  lOkEsha nArada sugEya sAkEtAdhipApramEya

 

C:  bhUsura vara paripUjita vAsudEva caraNAgata

dAsajana manOmbujAta vAsarEsa sukhyAta

 

Madhyama Kala:

sAsita khala dOSa rahita bhAsuramaNI bhUSaNayuta

vAsava mukha dEva vinuta kOsala nrpa shEkhara suta

Translation:

shrI kEshava mAm pAlaya – protect us, Sri Kesava!

rAkEndu mukha – one who’s face shines like the full moon

krpAlaya – abode of mercy

 

lOkEsha – Lord of the world

nArada sugEya – sung well by Narada

sAkEtAdhipApramEya – this compound word is broken down as:

sAkEtAdhipa – Lord of Saketa i.e. Ayodhya

apramEya – beyond understanding – i.e. beyond the understand of our five senses

 

bhUsura vara paripUjita – sincerely worshipped to the utmost by the best among the twice-borns

vAsudEva caraNAgata – devotees who have sought refuge

dAsajana manOmbujAta vAsarEsa – he is the Sun to the lotus i.e. the innermost hearts of his devotees; he makes this lotus bloom

vAsarEsa – Lord of the day i.e. lord of the sun

sukhyAta – very famous and reknowned

sAsita khala– punishes the evil-minded

dOSa rahita – without any blemish or bad qualities

bhAsuramaNI bhUSaNayuta – wearing gems shining with brilliance

vAsava mukha dEva vinuta – saluted by all the important devas starting from Indra (vAsava)

kOsala nrpa shEkhara suta – son of the king of Kosala

Additional notes:

Set to rupaka tala, this kriti is a short and sweet encapsulation of Bhairavi, proving yet again that Bhairavi is capable of accommodating compositions of all sizes!

In this first kriti of this set of Dwaadasha Naama kritis, Vasudevachar has made an emphatic point about Kesava being the Lord of the Sun – vAsarEsa.  The connection thus to the daily mandatory ritual of Sandhyavandanam and consequently the Gayatri mantra is firmly established.

The madhyama kala which almost comes as a surprise is the icing on the cake.  Vasudevachar describes Narayana as kOsala nrpa shEkhara suta – Ayodhya was also part of the kingdom of Kosala while Kausalya was from another part.  Hence the description of Rama being the son of the king of Kosala.


  1. Second Name – Narayana

Meaning:

  1. One who manifests as the five elements
  2. Refuge for the common man

Kriti Details

nArAyaNa namada  –  rAgA tODi – Adi tALA

P:  nArAyaNa namata santatam

vArAShi shayanam hIrAngadayutam

 

A:  mArAri vinutam munijana vinatam

dhArAdhara nibhatanum shubha caritam

 

C:  vAsudEvam ambuja lOcanam

dAsavarya pApa vimOcanam

vAsavAdyAkhila sura krta namanam

bhAsurEndu vadanam bhrta bhuvanam

Translation: 

nArAyaNa namata santatam – an imperative appeal to always prostrate to Narayana

vArAShi shayanam – reclining on the ocean – reference to Vaikuntam

hIrAngadayutam – with diamonds on the shoulder

 

mArAri vinutam – praised by Siva (referred to as mArAri which is mAra + ari i.e. enemy of Manmatha)

munijana vinatam –  paid obeisance to by saints (rishis) who have controlled their minds

dhArAdhara nibhatanum – with a body resembling that of heavy rain laden dark clouds

shubha caritam – with a very auspicious history and rich legacy

 

vAsudEvam ambuja lOcanam – as the son of Vasudeva, with eyes like a lotus

dAsavarya – eminent among devotes (varya or vara denoting eminent)

pApa vimOcanam – destruction of sins

vAsavAdyAkhila sura krta namanam – bowed to by Indra and other foremost of Devas

bhAsurEndu – shining like the moon (bhAsura = shining)

vadanam – referred to the face

bhrta bhuvanam – sustaining the universe

 

Additional notes:

Although there are countless kritis in Todi already extant, this is one is practically unknown.  Yet, the all-encompassing raga that Todi happens to be – its scope is akin to the infinite space around us and also in my opinion, Vasudevachar’s phenomenal talent for composing, there is something about this relatively small kriti that sounds so fresh, charming and captivating.

The word ‘’vArAshi’’ as a word for the ocean, is relatively rare.

 

 

  1. Third Name – Madhava

Meaning:

  1. Ma denotes mahalakshmi and hence Madhava denotes her husband
  2. One who’s born in the lineage of Madhu
  3. One who can be understood through Madhu vidya – one of the branches of the Upanishads

 

Kriti Details

bhaja mAdhavam – rAgA hindustAni kApi – Adi tALA

 

P:  bhaja mAdhavam anisham vAsudEvam

bhujagAdi pati shayanam dEvadEvam

 

A:  aja rudra surEsha vinuta caraNam

gajarAja bali prahlAdAdi sharaNam

 

C:  mAra janakam ambuja nibha nayanam

nAradAdi munijana krta namanam

shUra mArIca rAvana madanam

shAradEndu vadanam paribhrta bhuvanam

 

Translation:

bhaja – Worship

mAdhavam – Madhava ( husband of Ma – Lakshmi)

anisham – always!

vAsudEvam – Son of Vasudeva

bhujaga- adhipati shayanam – reclining on the lord of snakes

dEvadEvam – god of gods

aja rudra surEsha vinuta caranam – one whose feet are praised by Brahma, Siva and Indra

gajarAja bali prahlAdAdi sharaNam – the refuge of Gajendra, Mahabali, Prahlada and others

mAra janakam – father of Manmatha

ambuja nibha nayanam – one with lotus-like eyes (nibha  / aabha – oLi veesura kaNgaL nibha – brightness / used as comparison – samkaasha, sadhrusha)

nAradAdi munijana krta namanam – one who is offered/done prostrations by Rishis such as Narada

shUra mArIca rAvana mathanam – destroyer of heroic demons Ravana and Maricha

shAradEndu vadanam – one whose face is like the autumn moon

paribhrta bhuvanam – one by whom the universe is sustained

 

Additional notes:

The reference to Ravana and Maricha as ‘’shUra’’ is interesting.  ‘’shura’’ generally refers to someone who is very heroic and brilliant.  Certainly Ravana’s brilliance and talent was undisputable and so was his complete devotion to Lord Siva that enabled the ruler of Lanka Ravana to acquire the grace of the latter.  Hence the use of the word ‘shUra’.  Very tragically, Ravana’s immense power, and the fruits of his physical and spiritual penances and sacrifices, were used to ultimately terrorize the universe and to gratify his lust.  Since Ravana was such a ‘’shUra’’ it needed someone with the stature and superhuman personality, rather an avataara purusha like Rama to vanquish him.

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